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Our long war against Native American people

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ChristopherBlackwell Post number 26012 Posted: 1st December 2019     Subject: Our long war against Native American people
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An Indigenous Peoples' History Of The United States"
by Roxanne Dunbar-Ortiz

This is a very important if disturbing book giving the Native American account of the important wars launched against the Native people by the earliest English colonists through the centuries afterward. From the beginning our forefathers wanted only one thing to exterminate the native people. Now you can read their side of our history.

Christopher

Wisdom is what is left after you have done all the dumb stuff
Morgana Post number 26014 Posted: 2nd December 2019     Subject: The Doctrine of Discovery
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... everyone should familiarise themselves with this
The Doctrine of Discovery


SUMMARY
The Doctrine of Discovery established a spiritual, political, and legal justification for colonization and seizure of land not inhabited by Christians. It has been invoked since Pope Alexander VI issued the Papal Bull “Inter Caetera” in 1493. The Papal decree aimed to justify Christian European explorers’ claims on land and waterways they allegedly discovered, and promote Christian domination and superiority, and has been applied in Africa, Asia, Australia, New Zealand, and the Americas. If an explorer proclaims to have discovered the land in the name of a Christian European monarch, plants a flag in its soil, and reports his “discovery” to the European rulers and returns to occupy it, the land is now his, even if someone else was there first. Should the original occupants insist on claiming that the land is theirs, the “discoverer” can label the occupants’ way of being on the land inadequate according to European standards. This ideology supported the dehumanization of those living on the land and their dispossession, murder, and forced assimilation. The Doctrine fueled white supremacy insofar as white European settlers claimed they were instruments of divine design and possessed cultural superiority.

The significance of the Doctrine continues to be debated. According to David Wilkins, “it is more complicated than just saying the Pope gave European Catholics the rights to colonize and convert. In reality, the absolute denial of Native land rights was replaced less than fifty years later when Charles V… sought the advice of Francisco de Vitoria … as to what the Spanish could legally and morally claim in the New World. Vitoria, in a clear rebuttal to the Pope and the discovery notion, declared that Native peoples were the true owners of their lands. ”

The Doctrine of Discovery was the inspiration in the 1800s for the Monroe Doctrine, which declared U. S. hegemony over the Western Hemisphere, and Manifest Destiny, which justified American expansion westward by propagating the belief that the U. S. was destined to control all land from the Atlantic to the Pacific and beyond.

In an 1823 Supreme Court case, Johnson v. M'Intosh, the Doctrine of Discovery became part of U. S. federal law and was used to dispossess Native peoples of their land. In a unanimous decision, Chief Justice John Marshall writes, “that the principle of discovery gave European nations an absolute right to New World lands”[1] and Native peoples certain rights of occupancy.

We study the Doctrine of Discovery to listen to voices that have been silenced and disregarded for centuries. These voices tell a frequently overlooked story about the origins of the United States.

COMPELLING QUESTION
How did European explorers and colonial settlers use the Doctrine of Discovery to justify the taking of Native peoples’ land in what became the United States?

SOURCES
David Wilkins, “Deconstructing the Doctrine of Discovery, ” Indian Country Today Media Network, October 24, 2014.
Pope Alexander VI, “Inter Caetera, ” May 4, 1493. Retrieved from http://www.papalencyclicals.net/Alex06/alex06inter.htm
Robert J. Miller, Native America, Discovered and Conquered: Thomas Jefferson, Lewis and Clark, and Manifest Destiny, (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2008).
United Nations General Assembly resolution 61/295. United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (13 September 2007), available from http://www.un.org/esa/s ... DRIPS_en.pdf (excerpt PDF)

https://upstanderproject.org/firstlight/doctrine
ChristopherBlackwell Post number 26016 Posted: 3rd December 2019     Subject: Posted this
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https://upstanderproject.org/firstlight/doctrine
Morgana,
I posted this to a Pagan political forum, and my FaceBook Page.
Christopher

Wisdom is what is left after you have done all the dumb stuff
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